The following list contains an index of the major build and version numbers for a few Microsoft products. This list is primarily for the Office Server System (OSS) developer so it doesn't cover all Microsoft products. It's a work in progress... if you would like to contribute, please post to the comments of this article and include a citation where the version number can be validated.
Why create a list like this? Because I have needed it numerous times in the past and frankly I'm sick of having wade through my stack of books or the incredibly hard-to-find-things Microsoft knowledge base. Maybe it will help someone else, but it will now be easy for me to find from anywhere.
SQL Server (v7-present)
|v 7 RTM||7.00.623|
|v 7 SP1||7.00.699|
|v 7 SP2||7.00.842|
|v 7 SP3||7.00.961|
|v 7 SP4||7.00.1063|
|v 2000 RTM||8.00.194|
|v 2000 SP1||8.00.384|
|v 2000 SP2||8.00.532|
|v 2000 SP3/3a||8.00.760|
|v 2000 SP4||8.00.2039|
|v 2005 SP1||9.00.2047|
|v 2005 SP1 + KB918222||9.00.2153|
|v 2005 SP2||9.00.3042|
Content Management Server (MCMS)
|v 2001 RTM||4.1.942.0|
|v 2001 SP1||4.1.942.100|
|v 2001 SRP1*||4.1.942.308|
|v 2001 SRP2*||4.1.1106.0|
|v 2002 RTM||5.0.1581.0|
|v 2002 SP1||5.0.2284.0|
|v 2002 SP1a||5.0.4484.0|
|v 2002 SP2||5.0.5054.0|
SharePoint v2 (WSS v2 & SPS 2003)
|WSS v2 RTM||220.127.116.1130|
|WSS v2 SP1||18.104.22.16861|
|WSS v2 SP1 + KB887981||22.214.171.12411|
|WSS v2 SP2||126.96.36.19968|
|WSS v2 post SP2 rollup (KB900929)||11.0.8000.0|
|SPS 2003 RTM||11.0.5704.0|
|SPS 2003 SP1||11.0.6715.0|
|SPS 2003 SP2||11.0.8126.0|
|SPS 2003 post SP2 rollup (KB897722)||11.0.8126.2|
SharePoint v3 (WSS v3 & MOSS 2007) **
|WSS v3 & MOSS 2007 RTM||188.8.131.5218|
|WSS v3 & MOSS 2007 SP1||184.108.40.20619|
|WSS v3 & MOSS 2007 Infrastructure Updates||220.127.116.1118|
|WSS v3 & MOSS 2007 August 2008 Cumulative Rollup||18.104.22.16827|
|WSS v3 & MOSS 2007 October 2008 Cumulative Rollup||22.214.171.12431|
Be sure to check Spencer Harbar's killer Post SP1 page with links to all the hotfixes and version numbers... more than I have here.
* SRP = Security Rollup Package
** - SharePoint v3's architecture is such that MOSS is treated more or less like a feature pack, thus the underlying versions are the same between WSS v3 & MOSS 2007
[Updated 12/15/2005] Added WSS & SPS post-SP2 rollup updates.
[Updated 5/22/2006] Added SQL 2005 SP1 & post SP1 hotfix KB918222
[Updated 5/26/2006] Fixed CMS 2001 SRP1 & SRP2 & SP2 (there was no SP2 for CMS 2001, rather two SRP's for SP1). Thanks to Stefan for pointing this out.
[Updated 12/13/2008] Added all the major updates and security rollups for SharePoint v3.